Thursday, 3 July 2014

Micro Controller & Pin Diagram

A micro controller is an integrated circuit or a chip with a processor and other support devices like program memory, data memory, I/O ports, serial communication interface etc integrated together. Unlike a microprocessor (ex: Intel 8085), a microcontroller does not require any external interfacing of support devices. Intel 8051 is the most popular microcontroller ever produced in the world market. Now lets talk about 8051 microcontroller in detail.
Before going further, it will be interesting for you to understand the difference between a Microprocessor and Microcontroller. We have a detailed article which describes the basic difference between both.

8051 Pin Diagram & Description

For describing pin diagram and pin configuration of 8051, we are taking into consideration a 40 pin DIP (Dual inline package). Now lets go through pin configuration in detail.
Pin-40 : Named as Vcc is the main power source. Usually its +5V DC.
You may note some pins are designated with two signals (shown in brackets).
Pins 32-39: Known as Port 0 (P0.0 to P0.7) – In addition to serving as I/O port, lower order address and data bus signals are multiplexed with this port (to serve the purpose of external memory interfacing). This is a bi directional I/O port (the only one in 8051) and external pull up resistors are required to function this port as I/O.
Pin-31:- ALE aka Address Latch Enable is used to demultiplex the address-data signal of port 0 (for external memory interfacing.)  2 ALE pulses are available for each machine cycle.
Pin-30:- EA/ External Access input is used to enable or disallow external memory interfacing. If there is no external memory requirement, this pin is pulled high by connecting it to Vcc.
Pin- 29:- PSEN or Program Store Enable is used to read signal from external program memory.
Pins- 21-28:- Known as Port 2 (P 2.0 to P 2.7) – in addition to serving as I/O port, higher order address bus signals are multiplexed with this quasi bi directional port.
Pin 20:- Named as Vss – it represents ground (0 V) connection.
Pins 18 and 19:- Used for interfacing an external crystal to provide system clock.
Pins 10 – 17:- Known as Port 3. This port also serves some other functions like interrupts, timer input, control signals for external memory interfacing RD and WR , serial communication signals RxD and TxD etc. This is a quasi bi directional port with internal pull up.
Pin 9:- As explained before RESET pin is used to set the 8051 microcontroller to its initial values, while the microcontroller is working or at the initial start of application. The RESET pin must be set high for 2 machine cycles.
Pins 1 – 8:- Known as Port 1. Unlike other ports, this port does not serve any other functions. Port 1 is an internally pulled up, quasi bi directional I/O port.
Article by
CSE Department
SreeKavitha Engineering College  
SreeKavitha Engineering College,Karepalli

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